IT Essentials & Data Recovery For Online Businesses – Free Download

IT Essentials & Data Recovery For Online Businesses
Setting Up Your Business Right And Protecting Your Data

[…] Table of Contents
Chapter 1
The Beginning ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
A Short History of Information Technology ……………………………………………….. 4
The Hellenistic World ………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Early Programmable Devices ………………………………………………………………….. 6
Communications and Information Storage……………………………………………… 7
Information Technology Since 1980……………………………………………………….. 8
Information Technology Today…………………………………………………………………… 9
Types of Information Tools and Media……………………………………………………… 10
Personal Computer………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Storage Media ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Internet Options and Communication …………………………………………………… 13
Chapter 2
Understanding BizIT………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Assessing Your I.T. Needs………………………………………………………………………… 15
Desk and chair ………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Bookcase/Shelves………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Table ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
Telephone (And Phone System) ……………………………………………………………. 17
Computer and Monitor…………………………………………………………………………… 18
Printer, Copier, FAX Machine…………………………………………………………………. 20
Other I.T. Options…………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
All Those Bells And Whistles; Do You Really Need Them? ……………………. 21
Getting It Cheap……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Chapter 3
Getting Organized …………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Setting Up Your Workspace ……………………………………………………………………… 25
Organizing the Worktop ………………………………………………………………………… 25
Peripherals and Office Supplies …………………………………………………………….. 26
About Wireless Technology……………………………………………………………………. 27
Getting Online…………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
Dial-Up…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
Satellite …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
DSL………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
T1 and T3………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
A Word Of Caution…………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Networking: The Intranet…………………………………………………………………………. 31
Sharing Printers and Programs……………………………………………………………… 33
About Sharing Programs ……………………………………………………………………….. 34
Protecting Yourself And Your Business …………………………………………………….. 37
E-mail Issues…………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
Computer Care And Maintenance …………………………………………………………….. 39
Protecting The Hardware ………………………………………………………………………. 39
Software Maintenance …………………………………………………………………………… 41

Chapter 1 The Beginning


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    When people hear the words “Information Technology,” the first things that come
    to mind are computers and the Internet. It may also bring up words like “network,”
    “intranet,” “server,” “firewall,” “security,” as well as more arcane expressions such
    as “router,” “T-1,” “Ethernet,” or the mysterious and exotic-sounding “VoIP”
    (pronounced “voyp”).

    In fact, information technology is all of these things, and more. It’s hardly new,
    however. Information technology is as old as the brain itself, if you think of the
    brain as an information processor. As far as I.T. being a science, even that goes
    back as far as the earliest attempts to communicate and store information.

    And that is essentially what information technology is: the communication and
    storage of information, along with the ability to process and make use of the
    information stored.

    In this chapter, we’ll begin with a brief history of I.T., what it
    comprises today, and the different major types of I.T. systems available today.

    A Short History of Information Technology

    As human societies have grown in size and complexity, so has the need to collect,
    store and transmit information.

    While it could be argued that brains represent a
    form of “bio-information technology,” the Greek word “ ” – from which we
    get the word “technology” – really refers to scientific or mechanical knowledge,
    particularly that which involves the use of tools.

    Therefore, we’ll begin our journey
    with human’s first attempts to record and transmit knowledge through mechanical
    means.

    might think of as “information technology.” Using a combination of tools that
    included manganese “crayons” and clay that was colored with various pigments,
    early humans left these images on the walls of a cave near Lascaux, France and on
    cliffs in the Algerian Sahara.

    These have been dated as being approximately 18,000
    and 8,000 years old respectively. Unfortunately, there is no way to be certain
    exactly what message was being communicated (a problem our own descendants
    15,000 years from now may very well encounter!)

    Since the images depict animals that were commonly hunted at the time, and given
    the importance of game animals to a hunting-gathering culture, it’s possible that
    such images were attempts to present information about such game, or part of a
    rite designed to ensure a successful hunt.

    The invention of writing systems – including pictograms such as hieroglyphics,
    alphabetic writing and “syllabic” systems – seems to have taken place almost at the
    same time as the development of agriculture.

    Agriculture introduced such formerly unknown concepts as land ownership, advanced trade and the accumulation of
    wealth, which in turn led to more complex societal structures. As you might expect,
    this necessitated more detailed and efficient record-keeping.

    Alphabetic writing has a substantial advantage over pictograms (hieroglyphs), because a relatively limited
    number of symbols (letters) can be used over and over in infinite combination to
    communicate nearly anything. (As you will see later, modern I.T. uses only two of
    these symbols!)

    Preserving and storing such information posed certain challenges; information
    either had to be inscribed on stone or clay tablets (which were heavy) or animal
    skins, wax tablets or papyrus (which weren’t durable).

    The Hellenistic World

    The Classical Greeks were the first people of record to attempt to find scientific,
    rational explanations for natural phenomena. Some of the earliest proto-computers
    known were mechanical devices developed by the Greeks.

    One of these was a form of abacus (which also developed and was used in ancient China). The device
    facilitated and simplified mathematical calculation.

    Early Programmable Devices

    By the time the gradual break-up and fall of the Roman Empire was complete in the
    year 476 C.E., scientific and technological advances in the Western world had
    ground to a halt.

    While much of the scientific knowledge of the Greeks was preserved by Irish monks and Arab scholars, it wasn’t until the fourteenth century that principles of engineering were rediscovered and applied to information. The
    first of these was of course the printing press. Although the concept of movable
    type printing had been developed in China some four hundred years earlier, it was
    Gutenberg’s device in 1447 that revolutionized communications, making it easier
    and faster to record and disseminate information than ever before.

    The first truly programmable device would not come along for another 354 years, however.
    The Jacquard Loom of 1801 was a product of the Industrial Revolution. This
    invention used a series of specially punched paper cards that functional as
    templates, allowing for the automatic weaving of highly intricate patterns.

    Those punch cards became very significant to computing in the 1950’s, 60’s and 70’s.

    The next development was Charles Babbage’s “Analytical Machine” – a fullyprogrammable computer that unfortunately was never actually built. Babbage worked on designs from 1837 until his passing in 1871.

    This steam-powered mechanism would have also utilized punch cards, with a central processing unit
    (CPU) and a form of memory storage in the form of a system of pegs inserted into
    rotating barrels.

    The Analytical Machine would have been capable of storing 1,000 numbers of up to
    fifty digits each, and perform six different mathematical operations, including the
    calculation of square roots.

    Babbage’s ideas were incorporated into early electronic
    computing devices being developed in the late 1930’s and 1940’s, although not all
    of these were actually programmable.

    The first truly programmable computers – able to store and use information – did not come into common use until the 1950’s,
    and yes – made use of punch cards (those born before 1965 may remember
    playing with them).

    Communications and Information Storage

    Other developments related to information technology involved major advances in
    communication, such as the telegraph – which was really an electronic
    improvement on ancient methods such as drums and smoke signals, and later
    semaphore communication.

    The first telegraph was actually built in 1809, but the
    technology matured during the mid-nineteenth century with the development of
    methods whereby actual images could be transmitted electronically (1843).

    With the laying of the Transatlantic Cable in 1866, communication that once took
    weeks or months could be accomplished in minutes.

    Further advances included the development of wireless communication in the 1890’s, and the combination of this
    technology with the typewriter to create the teletype machine in the early 20th
    century.

    Thomas Edison was the first to come up with a way to store sound information with
    the invention of the phonograph in 1877, but it was really the development of audio
    magnetic recording tape in 1926 by German inventor Fritz Pfleumer that would
    become a method of storing information electronically.

    Magnetic tape was initially used for recording sound. The technology finally arrived in the U.S. after the
    Second World War, and early computer engineers soon found uses for it.

    Magnetic audio tape was used to store data by the UNIVAC I computer of 1951. […]

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